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Diabetes Panel # 1, Baseline Blood Test Panel

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by Neva J. Howell unless otherwise noted

If you are diabetic and are paying too much money for needed lab tests, you may want to consider tha walk in lab. You may be able to get the following

Diabetes Panel #1, Baseline Blood Test PanelCMP-14 Includes: Glucose-Blood sugar level, the most direct single test to discover diabetes, can be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.

Kidney Profile Bun or Urea Nitrogen BUN is an indicator of kidney function and another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys.

Creatinine, Serum An indicator of kidney function.

Bun/Creatinine Ratio Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.

Glomerular Filtration (eGFR) The eGFR test provides an assessment of the filtering capacity of the kidney.

Fluids & Electrolytes Sodium is one of the major salts in the body fluid, and important in the body’s water balance and the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. Potassium Helps to control the muscles and nerves. Chloride Similar to sodium, chloride helps to maintain the body’s electrolyte balance. Carbon Dioxide, Total Used to help in detecting, evaluating, and monitoring electrolyte imbalances. Calcium- A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones. Calcium is also important for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting.

Liver panel Protein, Total Together with albumin, protein is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body. Albumin, Serum is one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition in the body. Globulin, Total A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies. Albumin/Globulin Ratio Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin. Bilirubin, Total A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations of bilirubin may result in jaundice. Alkaline Phosphatase A body protein important in diagnosing proper liver and bone functions. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) an enzyme found in heart and skeletal muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities could represent liver disease. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities could represent liver disease. CBCs are used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood and includes the following: White blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood. Both increases and decreases in white blood cell count can be significant. White blood cell differential will look at the types of white blood cells present.

There are five different types of white blood cells, each with its own function in protecting from infection. The differential classifies white blood cells into each type: neutrophils (also known as segs, PMNs, granulocytes, grans), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil’s, and basophils. RBC (Red blood cell) count is the count of the actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood. Increases and decreases both can point to abnormal conditions. Hemoglobin measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in blood. Hematocrit measures percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of whole blood. A platelet count is the number of platelets in a given volume of blood. Increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions of excess clotting or bleeding. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a machine-calculated measurement of the average size of platelets. New platelets are larger, an increased MPV occurs when increased numbers of platelets are being produced. MPV gives your health professional information about platelet production in your bone marrow. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBC’s.

The MCV is elevated when RBC’s are larger than normal (macrocytic), an example being in anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. When the MCV is decreased, your RBC’s are smaller than normal (microcytic) as is seen in thalassemia’s or iron deficiency anemia.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside of a red blood cell. Macrocytic RBC’s are large and tend to have a higher MCH, while microcytic red cells have a lower value. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside of a red cell.

Decreased MCHC values (hypochromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is abnormally diluted inside of the red cells, such as in thalassemia and in iron deficiency anemia. Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is concentrated abnormally inside the red cells, such as in burn patients and hereditary spherocytosis, which is a relatively rare congenital disorder. Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a calculation of the variation in the size of RBC’s.

In some anemias, including pernicious anemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size (along with variation in shape  poikilocytosis) causes an increase in the RDW. The A1c (Glycohemoglobin) test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This is done by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c.

Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside of red blood cells (RBC’s). There are several types of normal hemoglobin and many identified hemoglobin variants, but hemoglobin A is the predominant form at about 95-98%.